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Promoted by Charles E. Beal
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NOTE OF DISCLAIMER – Clan Bell International The following information concerning this ground breaking research project for the surnames of Beal, Beale, Beals, Beall and Bell is presented for the benefit of members of the Clan Bell International and other researchers here in the United States or worldwide who may have an interest in the purpose and objectives of the study. Dissemination of the following information on this web site should not be construed as an endorsement of the study by the Clan Bell International. The Association is not a sponsor and thus holds no liability for the study and its outcome. Participation in the study is strictly voluntary and a personal one. WHY I STARTED MY BEAL SURNAME DNA PROJECT Charles E. Beal
I had noticed a number of questions that were being asked about our ancestors and no one could provide satisfactory answers. There were individuals with the surname Beal, Beale, Beals, Beall and Bell that had never traced their ancestors beyond a few generations. They had no idea which lines were theirs. Others had traced their ancestors for many generations, but still were looking for the place of origin and the first ancestor that had started their line. As examples:
Beal, I had my first ancestor William Beale, b. 1664, York, ME. He had Zaccheus, Richard, Obadiah, William, Jr., Samuel, Simeon and Benjamin to carry on the family name. Later 4 generations down, Jonathan, Jr., the "e" off and then the surname Beal carried down another 8 generations to my great
grandsons, Christopher and Stephen Beal. I have cousins that were spun off from various generations who still carry the surname Beal. They all ask who was the father of William Beal and from where in England did he come?
Another line, alleged not to be related, was started in York, ME by Arthur Beal. In Hingham, ME, John Beal, started his American line and other lines of Beal existed at Portsmouth, ME; Boston, Marblehead, MA; York, VA; PA and the other colonies. They most often went by these surnames: Beal, Beale, Bale, Beel, Beals.
A legend exists that the Beale and Beal families were "Border" Scot Clans that raided into England during and after the 1100s. We even see Beal villages remaining today in Northumberland and North Yorkshire, England. Who established these villages?
There were Beall families established in MD & VA, among the most famous was Ninian BEALL, an indentured Scot, sent to America, who became a Colonel and was known for his size. Similar to the strongman, Tall Barney of Beals Island in New England. Also well known are the lines of Alexander Beall, Robert Beall which are contained in books sold by BELL Association
There were over 117 Patriots with these names in the Revolutionary War,
including my ancestor Jonathan Beale, Sr.
You only have to read the "BEALL GENEALOGICAL NEWS" by the Beall Family Association and their related publications, packed with lineage & sources, to learn about the many individuals with the above surnames. The Maryland Bealls pronounce their surname as Bell.
Then we get to the Bell lineage which rightfully claims a clan name in Scotland. They have spread throughout the United States and other countries. "THE BELL~A~PEAL" is the publication of The Clan Bell International and they also have many books. Like the BEALL GENEALOGICAL NEWS above, containing pedigrees and articles on BELL, BEALL, BEALE, etc. The Bells have the best established ancestry connecting their US lineage to Scotland & England.
I have seen articles questioning the connections between the Alabama,
Georgia, Texas Bells and their northern relatives? Other questions concern the earliest origin of the Bell surname in Scotland?
There were over 174 Patriots with the Bell surname in the Revolutionary War.
It is impossible to do justice to the many thousands of descendants descended from the above surnames, spread throughout the United States & other countries in this short article.
If we can establish "Y" chromosome markers in the form of one or several genetic haplotypes for each of the surnames that I am including in the BEAL, BEALE, BEALS, BEALL and BELL DNA studies that are part of: BEAL SURNAME DNA PROJECT, we may have a better idea how our lineage's connect or where they come from in Scotland, England or elsewhere. Genealogists, who have dead ends, may be able to link their individual haplotype to a main stream surname haplotype established in this study. Regardless of any name changes it is the genes that are carried by the Y chromosome from one male ancestor down though the male direct descent that will prove the lineage.
Their may be exceptions arising out of rape and affairs, but they should be small in number. I think it is well worth the small amount of money required to be a participant in this study. We might be amazed at what is revealed.
Your questions about genetic genealogy will find answers in the web sites listed in the following e-mail describing and explaining the project. Explore and become familiar with the Duerinck and Mumma DNA Projects and Savin, etc. DNA Studies.
Up until now no Project has had so many participants and the goals of identifying surname lineage for genealogists who have already researched together for so many years, through piles of recorded pedigrees and sources.
I can only hope that an "Angel" in the true tradition of Broadway Shows will volunteer to furnish funds (no strings attached) for some of our genealogists who might not otherwise be able to afford to be a participant. HOPE SPRINGS ETERNAL!
BEAL SURNAME DNA PROJECT SCOPE This project is a multi-surname DNA project. The BEAL Surname DNA Project includes the BEAL Surname DNA Study, BEALE Surname DNA Study, BEALS Surname DNA Study, BEALL Surname DNA Study and BELL Surname DNA Study. Any other possible variants of the surname will be added, if there is sufficient evidence to believe they might be useful in the project. The project will address the ancestry of these lines by studying the "Y" Chromosome of living males with ancestry consisting of father, grandfather, great grandfather, g.g. grandfather, g.g.g. grandfather, etc., up the surname male line to their first ancestor to be positively identified through genealogical records.
At this time, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) which is always inherited from the mother through female descent, will not be addressed in this project.
Genealogy has traditionally used oral history and documentation as a means of identifying family members and their ancestors. However, researchers have primarily used documents and records to track generations of families by establishing pedigrees and lines of descent. In genealogy research, the surname is frequently a usable tool to trace descent from one generation to another generation. As early as 2850 BC, the Chinese found the use of surnames was practical to identify families and to prevent the intermarriage of close relatives. There were always questions regarding skin, hair color and other physical characteristics and people recognized there must be something in their families that passed these similarities or differences down through successive generations. There were few answers until genetic science was used in genealogy!
There have been questions in each of the project surname's lineages about parallel lines of descent, with same or similar surnames, which could not be connected to a common ancestor. Questions were also asked about the origins of their surnames. Was each surname from the same geographical location, maybe a county or city in England, Scotland, or elsewhere? Were other similar surnames from the same origin? From a common ancestor?
Genealogists have examined other surnames spelled much like their own or that sounded the same in efforts to find ancestors. Names were frequently misspelled because individuals could not read or write, and clerks spelled the surnames and gave the families names as they saw them. Ancestors decided to add letters like a, s, l and e to their names; others simply dropped letters out of their family names; while still others took completely new names when they migrated. Records were lost by fire, war and other disasters. Geneaolgy can be a very frustrating, challenging and time consuming endeavor.
A system called Soundex was invented to include whole groups of surnames in a numbering system, and in that system Beal is found at the designation B400. However, investigative methods did not always find that elusive ancestor. "Brick Walls" are what the genealogist frequently call the dead ends where all attempts to find an ancestor failed.
Today, there is a new investigative tool called genetic genealogy. This is the branch of knowledge arising out of the study of genes first identified in 1909 for identification of inherited physical characteristics. Later, it was found that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was contained in chromosomes and acted as a carrier of genetic information. Since 1940, the chemical nature of DNA has become a science revealing more and more of the mysteries that make up the human body. It now has become a science that permits the identification of individuals by the use of DNA.
DNA is used widely in criminal investigations, court proceedings on paternity cases and other issues requiring individual identification. Talk shows and other media have popularized identifying fathers of children by DNA.
MtDNA has been demonstrated to be a useful way of tracing relatives. It was successfully used in identifying the daughters and Czarina in the Anastasia case in Russia. It was also used in Argentina in the investigation of murder and kidnapping where children had to be identified.
More recently, the use of the Y chromosome has been used in family reconstruction, and Y chromosome haplotypes have been used in male descent lines to establish common markers for inclusion or exclusion from a family paternal lines. Haplotypes are a set of markers on the Y chromosome.
DNA was used in a controversial case determining relationships in Thomas Jefferson's descent. Other examples are the Mumma and Duerinck Surname DNA Projects, Sykes, Carvin, Savin, and Page Surname DNA studies.
(Please utilize the web sites listed in blue below, for clickable use, to learn more about the use of DNA Studies as a genealogy tool. I am not a geneticist, so am not able to provide technical details or answers on genetics )
The objectives of this Y Chromosome DNA Project are:
- To establish Y chromosome haplotypes for each of the surnames included in this project.
- To set up charts of the Y Chromosome, including each DNA sample that has been submitted by the participants.
- To establish if there are common ancestors for each of the surnames.
- To determine the commonality, if any, between the participating surnames.
- To determine any commonality in the origins of the surnames, using the first ancestral place of origin from each pedigree for each sample. ( Look at the charts used in the internet DNA surname projects and studies listed below)
OPERATION OF THE PROJECT Any descendant with at least a five generation proven paternal lineage will be welcome to participate. A living person's privacy will be protected during the course of the project and in the reporting phase. I have hopes that we will have a number of participants with many more generations of male descent than the required five.
This is a private, not commercial, project for BEAL, BEALE, BEALS, BEALL, BELL family genealogists, like myself. There is nothing binding about your stating a desire, initially, to participate in this project. When a sufficient number of participants are available, hopefully sixty or more, we will negotiate price with a qualified, experienced laboratory. You will be advised of the cost, method of payment, how you will receive your kits and any other details. You will make a final decision and sign a form agreeing to participate and pay the laboratory selected to perform the tests. For your information, the Page Study cost per individual is $150.00 (a current study). We can hope for a more reasonable cost as more and more laboratories are competing in the Y Chromosome haplotype testing field. Our target for a price will be $100. When you compare this with the cost of conventional genealogy research it is a bargain.
As for a time table I can only offer the example of the Mumma DNA surname project, which was initiated on April 17, 2000, and the results were received from the surname testing on January 21, 2001. I would provide information to the participants as it develops in the project.
I should add, for the squeamish individuals, that the testing will NOT be done by drawing blood, but it will be done by swabbing the inside of the cheeks of your mouth(self help)! Kits will be furnished to each participant for that purpose.
For any participant that wants to use the postal services, because they do not have access to the Internet, my address is:
Charles E. Beal
1800 Hampton Run
Broadview Heights, OH 44147-3290
I cannot enter into postal correspondence to respond to questions on this project at my home, as the postal cost would be prohibitive for me, as I have no sponsor for this project. I believe any individual will find answers to their questions by using the sites below.
A web site has been established to be a focal point for the project and to post the project results at: BEAL SURNAME DNA PROJECT . Each participant will be given their individual results and given access to the web site. Each will be identified by a coded number in the charts. None of the participants will be identified nor will their family lineage be posted without their permission.
I can tell you that we already have participants.